Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the bestword(s) for each numbered black and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10points)
People have speculated for centuries about a future without work, andtoday is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again 1 that technology is replacing humanworkers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by 2 :A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle inan impoverished wasteland.
A different and not mutually exclusive 3 holds that the future will be a wasteland of adifferent sort, one 4 by purposelessness: Without jobs to givetheir lives 5 , people will simply become lazy anddepressed. 6 , today’s unemployed don’t seem to behaving a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans whohave been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double therate for 7 Americans. Also, some research suggests thatthe 8 for rising rates of mortality, mental-healthproblems, and addiction 9 poorly-educated, middle-aged people is ashortage of well-paid jobs. Another study shows that people are often happierat work than in their free time. Perhaps this is why many 10 theagonizing dullness of a jobless future.
But it doesn’t 11 follow from findings like these that a worldwithout work would be unease. Such visions are based on the 12 of being unemployed in a society built on theconcept of employment. In the 13 of work, a society designed with otherends in mind could 14 strikingly different circumstances forthe future of labor and leisure. Today, the 15 of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs areboring, degrading, unhealthy, and a squandering of human potential,” says JohnDanaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.
These days, because leisure time is relatively 16 for most workers, peopleuse their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional 17 oftheir jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel 18 ,”Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feelrather different” -- perhaps different enough to throw himself 19 ahobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for 20 matters.
1. A. boasting B. denying C. ensuring D.warning
2. A. instability B. inequality C. unreliability D. uncertainty
3. A. prediction B. guideline C. resolution D.policy
4. A. divided B. characterized C.balanced D. measured
5. A. wisdom B. glory C. meaning D.freedom
6. A. Indeed B.Instead
C. Thus D. Nevertheless
7. A. rich B. working C. urban D.educated
8. A. substitute B. requirement C. compensation D.explanation
9. A. under B. beyond
C.among D. alongside
10. A. leave behind B. set aside C. make up D.worry about
11. A. statistically B. occasionally
C. economically D.necessarily
12.A.chances B. benefits C. downsides D.principles
13.A.height B. absence C. face D. course
14.A.yield B. restore C. exclude D. disturb
15.A.model B. practice C. hardship D.virtue
16.A.scarce B. lengthy
C. mysterious D. tricky
17.A.standards B. demands C. qualities D.threats
18.A.ignored B. confused C. tired D. starved
19.A.into B. against C. behind D. off
20.A.technological B.educational C. professional D.interpersonal
1.D warning 现在，人们___科技正代替人力。D选项“警告”符合意思。
2.B inequality 冒号后面是解释：富有的人赢得了大部分，但是普通大众徘徊在贫困线上。表示了一种对比和不平衡，答案选B
3.A prediction 后面提到the future， 答案prediction预测符合题意。
4. B characterized 由...标志着。未来是一座荒原，由无目的性标志着。
5. C meaning 没有工作给予他们生活的意义，人们会变得懒惰和抑郁。
6. A Indeed 后面表示一种强调，失业的人现在过得并不好。
7. B working 前后对比，unemployed 和working对应。
8. D explanation 对于后面句子的一种解释。
9. C among 在......中间
10.D worry about 上面提到：其他的研究显示人们在工作的时候总是在休息的时候更快乐。这就是因为很多人会担心没有工作的无聊感。
11.D Necessarily 这里有but，表示转折。所以这里用“不一定”的意思比较准备。
12.C downsides 这里还是说明的是不工作的坏处。
13.B absence 处于没有工作的状态下...
15.D virtue 工作的美德没有强调过，后面表示解释：JD说很多工作很无聊。
16. A scarce 因为，对于大部分的工作者来说，休闲时间是相对稀少的…
17.B demands 人们会用他们的空闲时间平衡他们工作智力和情感上的需要。
18.C tired 经过一天的工作，人们通常觉得很累！
19.A into 词组throw...into把自己投身于...
20.C professional 表示专业人员，其他选项的总括。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer thequestions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWERSHEET. (40points)
Every Saturday morning, at 9am, more than50.000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Park runphenomenon began with a d friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK andmore abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers Runners rangefrom four years old to grandparents, their times range from Andrew Baddelay’sworld record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.
Park run is succeeding where London’s Olympic “Legacy is failing ,Tenyears ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30thOlympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that great legacy ofthe Games would be to lover a nation of sport lovers away from their couches.The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has nothappened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 millionin the run-up to 2012 -- but the general population was graving faster. Worsethe numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claimsprimary school pupils doing at least two hairs of sport a week have nearlyhalved, Obesity has risen among adults and children .Official retrospectionscontinue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation ” The success ofPark run offers answers.
Park run is not a race but a time trial Your only competitor is theclock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-outfirst-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining.The Olympic bidders ,by contrast wonted to get more people ding spot and toproduce more elite athletes. The dud aim was mixed up. The stress on successover taking part was intimidating for newcomers.
Indeed, there issomething a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of sucha fundamentally “grassroots” concept as community sports associations. If thereis a rolefor government, it should reallybe getting involved in providing common goods-making sure there is space forplaying fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouragingthe provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governmentshave presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authoritiesand declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthystrategies, future garments need to do more to provide the conditions for sportto thrive. Or at least not make then worse.
21. According to Paragraph 1, Parkrun has _________.
A. created may jobs
B. become an official festival
C. gained great popularity
D. strengthened communityties
22. The author believes that London’s Olympic “Legacy” has failedto _________.
A. boost population growth
B. improve the city’s image.
C. promote sportparticipation.
D. increase sport hours inschools.
23. Parkrun isdifferent from Olympic games in that it _________.
A. does not emphasizeelitism
B. does not attractfirst-times
C. aims at discoveringtalents
D. focuses on masscompetition
24. With regard to mass sports, the author holds that governmentshould_________.
A. increase funds for sportclubs
B. invest in public sportsfacilities
C. supervise local sportsassociations
D. organize “grassroots”sports events
25. The author’s attitude to that U.K governments have done forsports is _________.
With so muchfocus on Children’s use of screens, it’s easy for parents to forget about theirown screen use.” Tech is designed to really suck you in”, says Jenny Radesky inher study of digital play ,” and digital products are there to promote maximalengagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-overinto the family routine.”
Radesky has studied theuse of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs afood-testing exercise. She found that mothers who used devices during theexercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbalinteractions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw thatphones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking attheir emails while the children would be making excited bids for theirattention.
Infants are wired to lookat parents’ faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces areblank and unresponsive—as they often are when absorbed in a device—it can be extremely disconcertingfor the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised bydevelopmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked tointeract with her child in a normal way before putting on blank express and notgiving then any visual social feedback. The child becomes increasinglydistressed as he tries to capture her mother’s attention . “Parents don’t haveto be exquisitely present at all times ,but there needs to be a balance andparents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child’s verbal or nonverbalexpressions of an emotional need,” says Radesky.
On the other hand, Tronickhimself is concerned that the worries about kids’ use of screens are born outof an “oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always beinteracting” with their children. It’s based on a somewhat fantasised very white,very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you’re failing to expose yourchild to 30000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that justbecause a child isn’t learning from the screen doesn’t mean there’s no value toit—particularlyif it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a breakfrom their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot of using their devices tospeak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feelhappier which them be more available to their child the rest of the time
26. According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to_________.
A. absorb user attention
B. increase work efficiency
C. simplify routine matters
D. better interpersonalrelations
27. Radesky’s food-testing exercise shows that mothers’ use ofdevices_________.
A. take away babies’appetite
B. distracts children’sattention .
C. reduces mother-childcommunication.
D. shows down babies’period development.
28. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” to show that _________.
A. it is easy for childrento get used to blank expressions
B. parents need to respondto children’s emotional needs
C. verbal expressions areunnecessary for emotional exchange
D. children are insensitiveto changes in their parents’ mood
29. The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_________.
A. protect kids fromexposure to wild fantasies
B. teach their kids atleast 30000 words a year
C. remain concerned aboutkid use of screens
D. ensure constantinteraction with their children
30. According to Tronick, kids’ use of screens may _________.
A. make their parents morecreative
B. give their parents morefree time
C. help them with theirhomework
D. help thembecome more attentive